Posts Tagged ‘Grammar’

The Present Perfect

This is another Spanish past tense to go along with the Pretérito Indefinido (Preterite or simple past) and the Preterito Imperfecto (Imperfect past or things you ‘used to do’).

Whereas the Preterite and Imperfect are used for events in the past that are considered completed the Present Perfect is used more to describe things that started in the past but continue into the Present.

Basically it’s the equivalent of the tense ‘I have done something’ in English and is made up of two verbs as in English, those being the verb to have and then the ‘past participle of another verb i.e. to eat = eaten, to dance = danced, to speak = spoken.

In Spanish though we use the verb Haber + past participle and so it works like this. NOTE that we do not use Tener in Spanish for this tense:

Haber = to have (done something)

he                                                                                      hablado (from hablar)
has
ha                                  +          Past Participle         comido (from comer)
hemos
habéis                                                                             vivido (from vivir)
han

As you can see to form the past participle you simply remove the -AR from the verb and add -ado, or removed -ER/-IR and add -ido.

There are also a number of irregulars you need to be aware of:

abrir (to open) – abierto (open)

cubrir (to cover) – cubierto (covered)

decir (to say) – dicho (said)

escribir (to write) – escrito (written)

freír (to fry) – frito (fried)

hacer (to do) – hecho (done)

morir (to die) – muerto (dead)

poner (to put) – puesto (put)

resolver (to resolve) – resuelto (resolved)

romper (to break) – roto (broken)

ver (to see) – visto (seen)

volver (to return) – vuelto (returned)

Below are a series of links which summarise the tense well and allow you to practice with it:

Spanishdict.com gives a decent summary here but it doesn’t specifically mention the irregulars

There is a good summary from studyspanish.com here of the past participles.

And more from studyspanish.com here on the present perfect tense itself. Be sure to do the practice quizzes available on the left hand side.  

Here’s a good practice exercise on BK Nelson.

5 Curso: Por v Para

Por and Para can cause a lot of problems for the English speaker, especially when we pigeon hole both words as meaning ´for´. In reality the uses of each can be far more nuanced, specifically ‘Por’.

I would advise you to focus specifically on the uses of ‘Para’ though as these are fewer and in my opinion are slightly more logical, you can then almost assume that most other uses are served by ‘Por’ (it is also advisable to learn some of the set expressions and idioms used with ‘por’, they are many)

Have a look at the following links:

A decent review of the uses of both from Studyspanish.com

Another summary from Spanish.about.com

A nice little discussion on the subtle differences sometimes seen between Por and Para, particularly when speaking of motives. 

 

Some practice exercises:

The ever reliable BK Nelson

Por v Para 1

Por v Para 2

Loads of links to various exercises here

2 curso – The Future Simple – I will do ……

We use this Future Tense in Spanish to talk about things we ‘will‘ do and not things we are definitely ‘going to’ do.

Again it is not too difficult and there are only a few irregular verbs. Click here for a good summary of how to form the Simple Future or check the rules in your book.

*** The important thing to remember is that with this tense you DO NOT remove the -AR, -ER or -IR from the Infinitive of the verb. You just add the endings to the infinitive. ***

Click the links below for some practice:

StudySpanish.com Future Tense

AprenderEspanol – Muchos ejercicios aqui

2 Curso – The Immediate Future Tense

This is probably the easiest tense to learn and use in Spanish as you only need to know how to conjugate one verb ‘Ir’ and there are no irregulars.

Remember our 3 steps to forming the Immediate Futre:

Step 1: Conjugate the verb ‘Ir’ depending on WHO is doing the action

Voy             –               I am going …..
Vas              –              you are going ……
Va                –             He/she is going …….
Vamos       –            We are going …..
Vais            –            You (pl) are going ……
Van            –             They are going ……

Step 2: Add an ‘a’.

Step 3: Add the infinitive of the verb that is going to be done.

Voy a bailar     –     I am going to dance
Vas a comer      –   You are going to eat

*** Remember to learn the ‘Vocabulario’ on p.33 of Primer Paso 2 that goes with this tense ***

Click here to take a practice quiz.

YOU CAN PRACTICE WITH SOME VOCABULARY TO USE WITH THE FUTURE TENSE HERE

Another phrase that work this way is Pensar + infinitive

Pensar + infinitive – Pienso ir a España el verano que viene = I plan to visit Spain next summer. *** Note there is no need for the ‘a’ here. ***

Saber v Conocer

In Spanish we’ve seen how there are to ways to say ‘to be’ – Ser and Estar.

In the same way there are two ways to say ‘to know’ – Conocer and Saber, as we saw in class though both mean ‘to know’ in different ways.

We use Saber to talk about how we ‘know’ knowledge or skills for example to know how to swim (Saber nadar) or to know how to speak Spanish (Saber hablar el español).  You could also know facts, for example (Saber la historia de Irlanda).

Conocer is used to talk about how we know someone, as in to know Mark (Conocer a Mark). Yet it is also used to talk about how you know a country, city or town (conocer Irlanda, conocer Dublín, conocer Stillorgan) ….. BUT BE CAREFUL…. it does not mean that you know about the history of the town or facts about the town but more about where things are in the town and what you can do to spend time there. Click on the link below for a review of Saber v Conocer.

CLICK HERE TO REVIEW SABER V CONOCER (AND THERE’S A BIT ON PEDIR V PREGUNTA BUT YOU CAN IGNORE THAT FOR NOW IF YOU LIKE)

YOU CAN ALSO PRACTICE HERE. IT MIGHT BE A BIT MORE DIFFICULT BUT HAVE A GO.

Preterito indefinido – Repaso y práctica

Click here for a link to all exercises and reviews of the indefinido. This is probably the best site for practicing the irregular forms.

Another good review here.  And you can practice with some more exercises by clicking here, just scroll down the page until you find the preterit forms exercises

A couple of nice videos that review The Most Irregular Verbs in the Preterite:

Part 1

Part 2

Remember if you want to get the verb forms perfected then repeated practice and drilling is the way to go. Here are plenty more for you to practice with:

Ver-Taal – Again this link will only bring you to a main page but you can scroll or search for the preterite excercises. There are a few to work with.

6th Year Present Tense Revision – Irregular Verbs

It is essential to you your Irregular Verbs in the Present Tense in order to be able to conjugate the Subjunctive. Below are a list of exercises that you can use to drill these verbs.

Reflexive Verbs

A review of the Reflexive Verbs with a Practice Quiz

Another Review

Practice Quiz 1

Stem Changing Verbs

Verbs with an O -> UE change

Verbs with an E -> IE change

Verbs with an E -> I change

Stem Changing Verb Practice

Another Practice Quiz with a good list of common stem changers

And another quiz

Other Irregular Verbs

Review with a Practice Quiz

Practice Exercise – Fill in the gaps

Irregulars Crossword – click on the numbers for the clue

Regulars and Irregulars